AN ASSESSMENT OF THE NEED FOR THE PROVISION OF EDUCATION SERVICES FOR INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS IN IDPS CAMPS IN NIGERIA
1.1 Background of the study
Globally, humanity still faces the challenge of internal displacement and the humanitarian catastrophes that ensue everywhere in the world. it is noteworthy to observe that the international community has persistently found itself entangled within relentless patterns of armed conflict, forced migration, and dire circumstances necessitating humanitarian intervention (Brigido et al., 2019; GRID, 2019). Nigeria has the third highest number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Africa. In 2020, it counted 2.7 million internally displaced people. Overall, IDMC (2022) observed that the drivers of displacement in Nigeria are multifaceted, complex, and often overlapping. Boko Haram and other Non-State Armed Groups (NSAGs) have triggered significant displacement in the north-east of the country since 2014. Crime, cattle rustling, land disputes, armed violence and tensions between pastoralists and farmers escalated in the central, north central, and north-west regions in 2020, following the trend of the past three years. Longstanding violence between Fulani pastoralists and Hausa farmers in the north-western states of Katsina, Sokoto, and Zamfara states has become more frequent, and rural banditry and criminal violence is on the rise, many resulting in secondary movements of IDPs previously displaced by violence, especially in the northern part of the country.
Unfortunately, the internally displaced persons are mostly women and children and they are vulnerable. The displaced children are mostly learners and school students before the crisis that moved them out of their respective communities and villages. These children are entitled quality education wherever camps or are residing temporally.Education as an essential need for IDPs children's psychosocial adjustment (McBrien, 2015) is being neglected on a large scale (GEMR & UNHCR, 2016). Sinclair (2001) and (McBrien, 2015) argued that education is an essential element of humanitarian response to the people in the crisis area. Every human being has the right to free and compulsory education at the primary level, as well as to access to secondary education, including general and vocational education that is free or subject to financial assistance in case of need (Brookings-Bern Project on Internal Displacement, 2018). As the fourth Sustainable Development Goal (SDG), education is seen as the right to inclusive and equitable quality education and promotes lifelong learning opportunities for all (Sustainable Development Goals, 2016). Education is both a goal in itself and a means for attaining all the other SDGs. It is not only an integral part of sustainable development, but also a key enabler for it.
Significantly, Ogunode & Paul (2021) assert that IDP school-age children have special educational needs that differ from those of the school-age children in mainstream schools. This is essential for ensuring all school-age children in IDPs are taught by qualified, professionally trained, motivated and well-supported teachers and that education facilities are child, disability-and gender sensitive to provide safe, non-violent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all. For the least child to learn, Nemine & Zalakro (2019) stated that education in the Post-2015 Development Agenda must focus on the following, Expanding access, Equity: disaggregating results to prioritize the most poor and vulnerable children, youth and adults, Enablers: enabling learning with safe and adequate environments and well-trained teachers and Learning: ensuring success is not limited to enrollment rates but also the quality of learning acquired by a child. Thus Achieving the targets requires a strong commitment by both governments and donors to manage and allocate adequate, equitable and efficient financing to education.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Recently, the escalating frequency of assaults against civilians and the deliberate destruction of communities by the extremist organizationhas resulted in a growing population of internally displaced individuals among them include vulnerable school age children. Eweka & Olusegun, (2021) assert that livelihoods during and after these attacks was characterized with high rates of poverty, unemployment, malnutrition, insecurity, hygiene, emotional/psychosocial disorder and social needs. These have also led to very high rate of displacement among school aged children, destruction of school facilities, killing of students and teachers, kidnapping of school girls, persistent threats and fears caused closure of school, low enrolment, high student-teacher ratio, limited access to quality education, inadequate learning materials and inadequate qualified teachers. The conflict in North-east Nigeria has further weakened an already fragile education system of the region, pushing more children out of school.
Coherently, Ogunode & Paul (2021) emphasized that it is the responsibilities of the federal government, state government and local government to ensure these internally displaced children are provided with education in their respective camps across the country. The federal government in bid to ensure that the internally displaced persons camps are provided with educational services decided open education service centers in the various camps across the federation. The federal government also promised the enrollment of all refugee children of school age and those in internally displaced persons’ (IDPs’) camps in schools by 2023 and to provide them equal opportunities at secondary and tertiary education levels. The Federal Commissioner, National Commission for Refugees Migrants and Internally Displaced Persons (NCFRMI) made the pledge during the implementation of the global Compact on refugees (GCR) in Nigeria (Thisday, 2021). However, many educational stakeholders have observed the quality of education in the various Internally Displaced persons (IDPs) camps across is not stable and sound. Many lamented that many Internally Displaced persons camps (IDPs) do not have educational facilities to provide education services for the IDPs while others complaint of poor quality of education services in the various Internally Displaced persons camps (IDPs) across the federation. For example the Nigeria Union of Teachers observed that (children) learners in Internally Displaced persons camps (IDPs) in the north do not have access to education. The Union further lamented that the means of education in IDPs was a makeshift. The Union concluded that, what they are receiving is makeshift education.
Despite the evident academic inquiries prompted by the circumstances surrounding internally displaced persons (IDPs), the existing literature has not adequately addressed the need for the provision of education services for internally displaced persons in IDPs Camps in Nigeria. Against this backdrop, the researcher delves into this study
1.3 Objectives of the study
The objective of this study is focused on an assessment of the need for the provision of education services for internally displaced persons in IDPs Camps in Nigeria. Other specific objectives includes:
i. To assess the basic educational needs of internally displaced persons in North/East Nigeria.
ii. To ascertain the educational intervention strategies available to internally Displaced Persons in the North/East Nigeria.
iii. To find out on how identified educational needs of IDP‟S are managed for sustainable development in the North/East Nigeria
1.4 Research Questions
The study will be guided by the following questions;
i. What are the basic educational needs of internally displaced persons in North-East Nigeria?
ii. What are the educational intervention programmes available to IDPs?
iii. How these educational needs of IDP‟S are managed for sustainable development in Nigeria?
1.5 Research hypothesis
Ho: There is no need for the provision of education services for internally displaced persons in IDPs Camps in Nigeria.
Hi: There is a significant need for the provision of education services for internally displaced persons in IDPs Camps in Nigeria.
1.6 Significance of the study
The results of this study would offer valuable insights to psychological institutions and clinical psychologists aiming to provide educational interventions for children affected by insurgency, aiding them in effectively addressing the psychological impacts of these traumatic experiences. The inclusion of nongovernmental organization in this study would yield valuable insights, particularly in the context of their collaboration with internally displaced persons (IDPs). The research will provide valuable insights for the NGO, enabling them to better understand and address the psychological challenges faced by individuals who have been displaced from their homes due to traumatic experiences. The study holds significant relevance for governmental entities, policy makers to offer more education services for IDP children. Specifically, it sheds light on the intricate interplay between corruption, ethno-political manipulation of resources, inadequate governance, poverty, and various forms of physical violence, all of which have contributed to the emergence and proliferation of terrorism in Nigeria. The present study aims to provide valuable insights to security operatives regarding the imperative of formulating a comprehensive counter-terrorism strategy. This strategy is intended to effectively address the prevailing security challenges in the North East region, thereby mitigating the pervasive insecurity. The study, in a theoretical sense, will serve as a valuable reference for students and researchers alike within this particular field of study. Additionally, it aims to offer pertinent information to the general public and contribute to the availability of educational resources within libraries.
1.7 Scope of the Study
Owing that making an investigation like this on assessment of the need for the provision of education services for internally displaced persons in IDPs Camps in Nigeria in the whole northern Nigeria is broad, there is need to delimit the study to researchable scope hence the researcher selected respondent from Nasarrawa State.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
During the course of the research, few minor obstacles while conducting the study, just as in every scientific endeavour. Lack of literature on insurgency and it's effect on socio-economic development of North East Nigeria was a key barrier. Hence, locating the pertinent resources, books, or information and the data gathering procedure took a lot of effort and organization. Language was also a barrier as most resident of Borno had difficulties understanding the research instrument because it was presented in English Language, hence the use of limited sample size. Therefore accuracy of the result will totally base on the data provided to the researcher by the educated resident and the results of this study cannot be generalized for other North East state, leaving a space for further research. Time restrictions were also an issue because the researcher had to complete this research while still going to classes and performing other necessary educational tasks. However all aspects were minimized in order to deliver the best results possible and ensure the success of the research, despite the limitations that were faced during the study.
1.9 Definition of terms
Terrorism: Is the unofficial or unauthorized use of violence and intimidation in the pursuit of political aims as well as illegal use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government as well as the population civil, or part thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.
Insurgency: An insurgency is a violent, armed rebellion against authority when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents.
Internal displacement / Internally Displaced Persons: Internally displaced persons are "persons or groups of persons who have been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalized violence, violations of human rights or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognized State border.