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THE INFLUENCE OF RESOURCES ON STUDENTS' PRODUCTIVITY IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ABA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ABIA STATE

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THE INFLUENCE OF RESOURCES ON STUDENTS' PRODUCTIVITY IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ABA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ABIA STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background To The Study

Resources play a crucial role in achieving educational objectives and goals on a global scale. According to Flippo (2018), resources are described as anything that can offer help or support when necessary for an individual, group, or organization to achieve a goal or purpose. However, the level of achievement of an educational institution's objectives is closely correlated with the availability of educational resources and their use (Alade & Lemo, 2019). Educational resources as the necessary materials that aid or facilitate the attainment of educational aims and objectives. Irondi (2019) defines educational resources as encompassing human, financial, and material resources. He further states that the human resources consist of various individuals such as school administrators, teachers, bursars, typists, clerks, messengers, cleaners, watchmen, cooks, drivers, librarians, gardeners, and so on.  On the other hand, Caster (2018) states that sufficient allocation of human resources in schools contributes to the achievement of high-performing students and the implementation of effective school administration.Therefore, competent human resources are necessary for secondary schools, and it is the responsibility of school proprietors in private establishments and the government in public institutions to ensure this. Additionally, the interaction between nature and nurture in relation to the impact on the quality of education, staff productivity and students performance are crucial matter that should not be disregarded by the stakeholders in the education business. Moreover, the importance of education and the development of human and material resources for the progress of the nation has been a matter of concern for the government and other players in the education sector for a considerable period of time. This has been effectively expressed in government programmes and statements during the past few decades. Many developing countries have allocated their resources to the establishment and enhancement of educational institutions at different levels, driven by the conviction in the effectiveness of education as a potent tool for development. Education is a critical tool for personal social and economic mobility, as well as a tool for societal development at the national level (Okpala, 2016). Howbeit, the availability of people and material resources in  secondary schools  are important factors in determining the school's efficacy and success. Nevertheless, the ongoing debate regarding the declining quality of education in Nigeria has been a prominent topic of discussion at the national level for several decades, and it is evident that these discussions will persist in the foreseeable future. The academic performance of underprivileged students has been associated with various factors, such as a high teacher-student ratio, a lack of qualified teaching staff, ineffective educational leadership, political instability, the politicisation of educational programmes, and insufficient essential physical facilities and equipment (Adeogun, 2019). According to Alade & Lemo (2019), the decline in academic performance among pupils can be ascribed to various factors, including the quality of teachers, variables related to the family environment, government-related factors, and the lack of educational resources (such as human, material, financial, and physical resources). Furthermore, the availability of educational resources, both human and material, is crucial to them due to its significant role in achieving educational objectives. Human resources, in particular, are a vital educational input that is necessary for the comprehensive development of students' skill acquisition and literacy. Emeasoba (2018) and  Hanna (2019) argue that the quality of education students receive depends on the quality of teachers. Therefore, high-quality teaching and learning are essential for students' academic achievement. According to Lasa (2018), the success of every human endeavor, including secondary schools, is closely tied to the quality of instructors responsible for teaching. He emphasized that the extent to which public education succeeds is significantly influenced by the quality of the individuals involved in the educational process and the effectiveness with which they fulfill their individual and collective duties. Lasa also highlighted that the competence of the staff tasked with implementing desired changes in students is a critical factor in ensuring the success of secondary education. Similarly, Nwana (2017) asserted that the overall efficiency and effectiveness of an educational institution are determined by the appropriateness of the teaching personnel and the availability of teaching materials. This underscores the necessity of adequate human and material resources for secondary schools to operate successfully and efficiently. Therefore, a survey will be conducted in order to examine the influence of resources on students' productivity in senior secondary schools in Aba South LGA of Abia state.

 1.2     Statement Of The Problem

The adequacy of human and material resources in secondary schools is of utmost importance. Teaching and learning are enhanced when both human and material resources are accessible, leading to increased comprehension, significance, and ease. Ayodeji (2018) states that the presence of people and material resources in various schools significantly influences student achievement. In other words, these materials enhance the effectiveness and relevance of teaching and learning. However, it has been observed that there is a high level of insufficiency of human and material resources necessary for effective teaching and learning in numerous secondary schools in Nigeria. 

Government and school officials have faced significant criticism for their failure to adequately provide necessary resources in our schools, including buildings, books, a modern library, an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Laboratory, and competent instructors. These, however, facilitate effective teaching and learning. In order to ensure effective instruction and learning in schools, The lack of material resources and qualified teachers has somewhat hindered the effectiveness of secondary school education. Insufficient human and material resources have been noted by scholars such as Osarenren-Osaghae and Irabo (2022) as a significant factor contributing to low academic performance among students in private secondary schools. 

1.3     Purpose Of The Study

The main objectives of this study is to examine the influence of resources on students' productivity in senior secondary schools in Aba South LGA of Abia state. Specifically the study intends to:

Determine  whether there is an adequate availability of human resources in senior secondary schools in Aba south local government area of Abia state.

Find out whether there is an adequate provision of quality, and adequate teaching/learning material resources  in senior secondary schools in Aba south local government area of Abia state.

Evaluate the effect of qualified teachers on the academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in Aba south local government area of Abia state.

Analyze the effect of teaching/learning resources on the academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in Aba south local government area of Abia state.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following research questions;

Is there an adequate availability of human resources in senior secondary schools in Aba South Local Government Area of Abia State?

Is there adequate provision of quality and sufficient teaching/learning material resources in senior secondary schools in Aba South Local Government Area of Abia State?

What is the effect of qualified teachers on the academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in Aba South Local Government Area of Abia State?

What is the effect of teaching/learning resources on the academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in Aba South Local Government Area of Abia State?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

Ho1: Qualified teachers has no significant effect on the academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in Aba South Local Government Area of Abia State.

Ha1: Qualified teachers has significant effect on the academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in Aba South Local Government Area of Abia State.

Ho2: The availability of teaching/learning resources has no significant effect on the academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in Aba South Local Government Area of Abia State.

Ha2: The availability of teaching/learning resources has significant effect on the academic performance of students in senior secondary schools in Aba South Local Government Area of Abia State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The relevance of this study cannot be over emphasized as it will be source of constructive information to a group of stakeholders in the educational sector. Hence, this study will enlighten school administrators, sponsors, the government, and communities involved in education on the importance of having adequate teaching materials and tools to facilitate effective instruction.

Furthermore,it provide insights to students on how to make informed decisions about how to effectively utilize available resources for their academic growth. Also,it will guide parents in choosing the right schools for their children and in supporting school-related activities that enhance resource availability.  

Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as a literature review. This means that other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regard to the influence of resources on students' productivity in senior secondary schools in Aba South LGA of Abia state.

1.7 Scope and Delimitation of Study 

The scope of this study is boarded on the influence of resources on students' productivity in senior secondary schools in Aba South LGA of Abia state. Empirically, this study will explore the availability of human resources in secondary schools, the provision of quality, and adequate teaching/learning material resources in secondary schools, the effect of qualified teachers on the academic performance of students, and the effect of teaching/learning resources on the academic performance of students.

Geographically, the study will be delimited to students and teachers in senior secondary schools in Aba South LGA of Abia state.

1.8 Limitation of the study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed. 

More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other schools, local governments, states, and other countries in the world.

1.9 Operational Definition of Terms

Resources: refer to the various inputs that support the educational process, including physical, human, and financial assets.

Human resources: These are resources mainly carried out by human.

Material resources: These are concrete object used by students and personnel as instructional materials.

Facilities/equipment: these are resources that aid teaching and learning process. They are classrooms, library, ICT, sporting facilities and instructional materials.

Students' productivity: refers to the academic performance and overall engagement of students in their educational activities.


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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