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FACTORS INFLUENCING SOCIETAL INVOLVEMENT IN GIRL CHILD EDUCATION IN YORRO L G A (TARABA STATE)

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FACTORS INFLUENCING SOCIETAL INVOLVEMENT IN GIRL CHILD EDUCATION IN YORRO L G A  (TARABA STATE)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Education for girls has become a big concern in the majority of developing nations, particularly in Nigeria, where Taraba State is located. Women are considered second-class citizens in Nigerian society. Women have always been considered the weaker sex and hence require the support and protection of males (Enemuo, 2019). Many parents believe that educating girls is a waste of time and money since they will eventually marry and the knowledge they get will benefit solely their husbands’ and families’. Additionally, the society feels that males will become the family's breadwinners and hence must be educationally prepared for the labor ahead. Girls were and are still deemed unfit for education due to their vulnerability to physical and sexual harassment (Enemuo, 2019).

Preference for male offspring is one of the primary reasons for high fertility in the majority of Africa's countries (King, 2018). Parents' preference for one sex stems from the perceived worth or benefits of that sex. Male offspring are highly regarded in many regions of Nigeria for their role in preserving or propagating the family name, residing continuously in or around the family compound or dwelling, providing security for the elderly, and acting as a source of defense and social pride for their parents. When young male children assist their parents on the farm, in their enterprises, with errands, and, to a lesser extent, with home duties. Female children, on the other hand, assist their moms with a variety of home activities, including cooking, washing dishes and clothing, sweeping and cleaning the house, and babysitting (Enemuo, 2019).

The society and parents' perceptions of these advantages of male and female offspring have an effect on their reproductive attitudes and desires, as well as on actual fertility. The predilection for boys leads parents to have a large number of children in order to have at least one son to carry on the family name and inherit family possessions (McCrary, & Royer, 2016). Apart from this, in many underdeveloped nations, girls are excluded from school throughout puberty out of fear of unintended pregnancy and are married off early to spouses they may not choose (Miller, 2017). Gender inequality in education is not exclusive to Africa's least developed countries. In certain regions of Asia, such as China, many peasants still place a premium on sons.

According to Eliza, (2018), poverty has exacerbated the condition of females' lack of access to school, since some the society and parents prefer to educate boys rather than girls when finances are few. These conventional views and family poverty have been proven to generate unfavorable attitudes about girls' education, limiting parents' support. Other societal impediments to girl child education in Nigeria, according to Bolaji, (2017), include cultural inhibitions, erroneous interpretations of religious injunctions, traditional practices, early marriage of girls, gender insensitivity in educational settings, societal preference for the male child, and overburdening the girl child with household chores and labor.

Education is a fundamental right that all people, especially girls and women, are entitled to. According to UNESCO (2019), women may contribute to the development of living conditions not just in their immediate families, but also in society as a whole via education. Not only does education empower girls, but it is also the finest investment for national growth. The UNICEF publication stressed the importance of education in empowering girls, enabling them to participate successfully in society, and safeguarding them against HIV/AIDS and other forms of sexual exploitation. Additionally, it states that female education contributes to the reduction of infant and maternal mortality, as well as illness control and health status improvement. Recognizing the importance of education for all parts of the world's population has heightened worldwide attention to universal education. As a result, governments and other interest groups are making significant efforts to improve female child education. In Nigeria, the National Policy on Education (2004) in Moulton, (2017) declared unequivocally that equal educational opportunities should be provided to all Nigerian children regardless of their gender or region.

According to Moulton, (2017), the Pan African conference on the education of girls was a watershed moment in addressing the issues of achieving universal education in the twenty-first century. The National task force for female child education was established on 28th October 1993 under the auspices of the National Women Commission (NWC), which is now the federal ministry of women affairs and youth development. Similarly, the UBE was established in 1999 with the goal of ensuring that all Nigerian children get obligatory education. Currently, the Girls' Education Project (GEP), which was established in December 2004 in collaboration with UNICEF, has made significant achievements in the education of female children as well. The unanswered issue is whether parents have responded positively to these calls to educate girls. The answer is not laudable, as literature indicates that despite these commendable and encouraging efforts by international communities, governments, civil societies, and gender movements, there does not appear to be a dramatic shift in parental attitudes toward girls' education in Nigeria, as female children remain educationally marginalized.

In support of this, Ocho, (2015) asserted that many households continue to prioritize the education of boys above girls. Additionally, he highlighted that some families find little or no value in investing in women's education since they are frequently viewed as other people's property. As a result, it is considered that no compromises should be made to send the girl kid to school. Thus, the purpose of this study is to ascertain Factors influencing societal involvement in girl child education.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Despite many gains recorded with regards to overall level of education worldwide and more children than ever are now attending primary school (King, 2018), there is still not world-wide gender parity in education. Girl child access to formal education has continued to be low in developing part of the world especially in Sub—Sahara Africa. Globally, two thirds of all those who have no access to education are girls and women. Sixty-five million girls and women never even started school, and an estimated 100 million do not complete primary education, often because the quality is poor and their opportunities are far from equal to those of boys (Iwalaiye, Abah, Johnson & Giwa & Ali, 2016). In a recent by World Development (2019) there exist a sizeable gender gaps for poor women and women in poor places. The report revealed that in education where gaps have narrowed in most countries, girls’ enrollment in primary and secondary schools in sub-Saharan African countries and some parts of south Asia have not improved much (Anah, 2013). In Nigeria, particularly, the north part of the country, access to basic education among the child girl have remain low. As only 20 per cent of women in the North West and North East of the country are literate and have attended school (Unicef, 2017). Considering the vital role played by women in the society and the nation, it is therefore paramount to review the factors influencing societal involvement in girl child education in Yorro L G A of Taraba State.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The primary objective of this study is to examine the factors influencing societal involvement in girl child education in Yorro L G A of Taraba State. Specifically, this study seeks:

To determine level of girl child education in Yorro L G A of Taraba State.

To establish the extent of societal involvement in girl child education in Yorro L G A of Taraba State.

To find out the societal factors influencing girl child education in Yorro L G A of Taraba State.

To investigate strategies in improving child education in Yorro L G A of Taraba State.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

What is the level of girl child education in Yorro L G A of Taraba State?

What is the extent of societal involvement in girl child education in Yorro L G A of Taraba State?

What are the societal factors influencing girl child education in Yorro L G A of Taraba State?

What are the strategies in improving child education in Yorro L G A of Taraba State?

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

To determine the effectiveness of this study, the following research null hypotheses will be formulated to guide the study and it will be tested at 0.05% levels of significance.:

H01: The level of girl child education in Yorro L G A of Taraba State is low.

H02: The extent societal involvement affects girl child education in Yorro L G A of Taraba State is low.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It is a general belief that the girl child education is of great importance, because it is the bedrock of education and the society, just as a well laid foundation is the strength of the structure. Therefore, the recommendations and findings of this work would be beneficial to the following:

Parents of the girl child: This study will reveal the importance and benefits of them educating their girl children.

Teachers: The teachers will be able to see for themselves as both parents and teachers and learn to be receptive towards the girl child education. The findings of this study will further aid the teachers to quell the doubts of parents concerning the education of the girl child.

School authority: The school will learn to be accommodating, counsel parents from time to time when the need be, so that both the school and parents will be able to communicate and work together toward the girl children development.

The government: The government will be able to put in place policy and encouragement that will avail them the special educational technique on girl children education.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

Broadly, this study focuses on factors influencing societal involvement in girl child education in Yorro L G A of Taraba State. Specifically, this study focuses on determining whether there is girl child education in Yorro L G A of Taraba State, establishing the extent to which societal involvement affects girl child education in Yorro L G A of Taraba State, investigating the factors affecting girl child education in Yorro L G A of Taraba State and investigating strategies in improving child education in Yorro L G A of Taraba State.

Selected teachers and parents of some secondary schools in Yorro L G A of Taraba State will serve as the enrolled participants of this study.

1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

As with any human endeavor, the researcher experienced small impediments while performing the study. Due to the scarcity of literature on the subject as a result of the discourse's nature, the researcher incurred additional financial expenses and spent additional time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as during the data collection process, which is why the researcher chose a small sample size. Additionally, the researcher conducted this inquiry in conjunction with other scholarly pursuits. Additionally, because only a small number of respondents were chosen to complete the research instrument, the results cannot be applied to other secondary schools outside the state. Regardless of the limits faced throughout the investigation, all aspects were reduced to ensure the best outcomes and the most productive research.

1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Girl child Education: Girl-child education is a catch-all term for a complex set of issues and debates surrounding (primary education, secondary, and tertiary and health education in particular) for girl and women.

Influence refers to contributing or playing a role towards something’s success or failure like contributing towards the girl – child’s participation in secondary education.

Education: this depicts individuals’ involvement in formal training for the purpose of acquiring basic knowledge, skills and expertise necessary for living a meaningful and impactful life. It generally aims at the development of human abilities.


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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