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EXAMINE THE EFFECT OF STUDENTS ABDUCTION ON EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES IN ZAMFARA

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EXAMINE THE EFFECT OF STUDENTS ABDUCTION ON EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES IN ZAMFARA


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

The issue of student abduction in Nigeria has emerged as a significant societal concern, resulting in adverse consequences for the affected individuals' mental well-being and freedom. The phenomenon of student abduction has had a significant influence on several aspects, including academic progress, self-sufficiency, and the overall development of the country, particularly in the majority of secondary schools located in the northeastern region of Nigeria. The phenomena of abduction, kidnapping, and hostage-taking have been seen throughout human history (Olowolagba, 2021). Recently, there has been a recognition of the presence of a dysfunctional practise in Nigeria, which is now being characterized as a social sin. With regards to the considerable quantity of pupils displaying unexpected levels of engagement, it seems that abduction emerges as one of the most intricate and financially rewarding criminal scenarios in Nigeria.

Additionally, Sanni (2015) asserts that the north-east area of Nigeria has seen significant repercussions due to abductions, suicide bombings, kidnappings, and militant group assaults, most notably the Boko Haram organization. Consequently, this region has been plagued by the highest rates of illiteracy among girls in the nation. Also, Onyido (2019) asserts that there is a correlation between a decline in educational attainment and the prevailing instability inside the nation. However, abduction being a critical issue within the Nigerian educational system, is a significant component of the prevailing security difficulties in the nation. The Nigerian educational system demonstrates a lack of growth, self-reliance, and development as a result of the repercussions associated with abduction. According to a study conducted by Odumbo, Shittu, Akinyemi, and Momoh (2017), there has been an increase in the occurrence of student abductions. The prevalence of insecurity in these kidnappings poses a significant threat to the overall peace, prosperity, and advancement of the country. Based on the aforementioned assumptions, the primary factors that contribute to the abduction of secondary school students encompass economic downturn, impoverished conditions, moral decline, substandard living conditions, exorbitant living expenses, inflationary pressures, unemployment among graduates, inadequate parental guidance, avarice among young individuals, a propensity for rapid wealth accumulation, insufficient crime prevention measures, and a prevailing sense of insecurity.The significance of education in the advancement of society cannot be overstated. The development of the educational sector is crucial for every nation to fully realize its potential. The attainment of power, reputation, grandeur, and the survival of the human species are reliant upon this instrument, making it indispensable.

Furthermore,  Mustapha (2019) states  that education  serves as the fundamental basis for the process of constructing a country. It may be described as the systematic cultivation of an individual's cognitive, social, emotional, spiritual, and political faculties via the supply of necessary knowledge and conducive environments according to  (Olusola, 2021).  Also, Adeniran and Castradori (2021) defined education is a process through which people acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to contribute meaningfully to society. An alternative perspective posits that education encompasses the acquisition of pertinent skills and competences, facilitating the realisation of one's inherent capabilities and attainment of self-actualization (Onyido & Osigwe, 2017). In addition, Shedrack (2019 assert that education has a crucial role in the maintenance, transfer, and enrichment of cultures among different communities. Hence, it is evident that education plays a crucial role in both human and capital growth. However, the current situation is not conducive to educational activities due to the ongoing abductions of kids. This has resulted in a suspension of academic operations, as pupils are now apprehensive about attending their respective institutions. Therefore, the researcher sought to examine the effect of students abduction on educational activities in Zamfara State.

1.2 Statement of the problem

The academic endeavours inside Nigerian educational institutions are now facing significant challenges across all dimensions, including issues related to both accessibility and the quality of education provided. Nevertheless, it might be said that the recent series of widespread abductions of pupils is the most severe existential peril and dilemma confronting the education system. According to Adeniran and Castradori (2021), during a span of less than three months from December 2020 to March 2021, a total of over 600 children were abducted while attending school, in three distinct occurrences. Of more concern is the observation that the increased state of insecurity is mostly prevalent in the northern region of Nigeria, an area that already has educational disadvantages. Out of the approximate 10.5 million children that are not enrolled in schools throughout the nation, it is seen that 69 percent of them are from the Northern region. This particular region is characterised by cultural practises and economic disadvantages that hinder children's active engagement in educational institutions. The area is significantly impacted by the insurgent actions of Boko Haram, which have severe consequences for both the economic and education institutions. The current surge in school abductions has a significant likelihood of eroding community and family confidence in the education system. There is a potential for a substantial decrease in literacy rates, which might exacerbate the issue of limited access to high-quality and fair education. Moreover, in light of the protracted suspension of schools due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Nigerian education system is now through a process of recovery. However, the introduction of security concerns as an additional problem has the potential to result in an irreversible collapse of the system (Adeniran & Castradori, 2021). Hence, the study examines  the effect of students abduction on educational activities in Zamfara State.

1.3       Objectives of the study

The general objective of the study is to examine the effect of students abduction on educational activities in Zamfara. The specific objectives is as follows:

1.        Identify factors responsible for the abduction of students in Zamfara State.

2.        Find out the effect of students abduction on educational activities in Zamfara State.

3.        Recommend strategies that can help curb the activities of abductors in Zamfara State.

1.4 Research questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study:

1.        What are the factors responsible for the abduction of students in Zamfara State?

2.        What are the effect of students abduction on educational activities in Zamfara State?

3.        What are the strategies that can help curb the activities of abductors in Zamfara State?

1.5       Resrearch Hypotheses

H0: Students abduction does not have any effects on educational activities in Zamfara.

Ha: Students abduction have any effects on educational activities in Zamfara.

1.6       Significance of the study

The findings f the study is significant to ministry of education, stake holders in the educational sector, including policy makers as it will be revealed by the study the degree at which insecurity has affected the educational activities in the northern region, especially in Zamfara State. The findings of the study will propose recommendations toward curbing the spate of insecurity in the Northern part of Nigeria.

The findings of the study will be significant to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.

1.7       Scope of the study

The scope of this study is boarded on the effect of students abduction on educational activities in Zamfara. Theoretically, this study will discuss factors responsible for the abduction of students in Zamfara State, find out the effect of students abduction on educational activities in Zamfara State and recommend strategies that can help curb the activities of abductors in Zamfara State.

Geographically, the study will be delimited secondary school students in Zurmi local government, Zamfara state, Nigeria.

1.8       Limitations of the study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents.

In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed.

More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other schools, local governments, states, and other countries in the world.

1.9       Definition of terms

Abduction : the action of taking someone away by force or deception.

Educational activities: the activities of educating or instructing; activities that impart knowledge or skill


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

The issue of student abduction in Nigeria has emerged as a significant societal concern, resulting in adverse consequences for the affected individuals' mental well-being and freedom. The phenomenon of student abduction has had a significant influence on several aspects, including academic progress, self-sufficiency, and the overall development of the country, particularly in the majority of secondary schools located in the northeastern region of Nigeria. The phenomena of abduction, kidnapping, and hostage-taking have been seen throughout human history (Olowolagba, 2021). Recently, there has been a recognition of the presence of a dysfunctional practise in Nigeria, which is now being characterized as a social sin. With regards to the considerable quantity of pupils displaying unexpected levels of engagement, it seems that abduction emerges as one of the most intricate and financially rewarding criminal scenarios in Nigeria.

Additionally, Sanni (2015) asserts that the north-east area of Nigeria has seen significant repercussions due to abductions, suicide bombings, kidnappings, and militant group assaults, most notably the Boko Haram organization. Consequently, this region has been plagued by the highest rates of illiteracy among girls in the nation. Also, Onyido (2019) asserts that there is a correlation between a decline in educational attainment and the prevailing instability inside the nation. However, abduction being a critical issue within the Nigerian educational system, is a significant component of the prevailing security difficulties in the nation. The Nigerian educational system demonstrates a lack of growth, self-reliance, and development as a result of the repercussions associated with abduction. According to a study conducted by Odumbo, Shittu, Akinyemi, and Momoh (2017), there has been an increase in the occurrence of student abductions. The prevalence of insecurity in these kidnappings poses a significant threat to the overall peace, prosperity, and advancement of the country. Based on the aforementioned assumptions, the primary factors that contribute to the abduction of secondary school students encompass economic downturn, impoverished conditions, moral decline, substandard living conditions, exorbitant living expenses, inflationary pressures, unemployment among graduates, inadequate parental guidance, avarice among young individuals, a propensity for rapid wealth accumulation, insufficient crime prevention measures, and a prevailing sense of insecurity.The significance of education in the advancement of society cannot be overstated. The development of the educational sector is crucial for every nation to fully realize its potential. The attainment of power, reputation, grandeur, and the survival of the human species are reliant upon this instrument, making it indispensable.

Furthermore,  Mustapha (2019) states  that education  serves as the fundamental basis for the process of constructing a country. It may be described as the systematic cultivation of an individual's cognitive, social, emotional, spiritual, and political faculties via the supply of necessary knowledge and conducive environments according to  (Olusola, 2021).  Also, Adeniran and Castradori (2021) defined education is a process through which people acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to contribute meaningfully to society. An alternative perspective posits that education encompasses the acquisition of pertinent skills and competences, facilitating the realisation of one's inherent capabilities and attainment of self-actualization (Onyido & Osigwe, 2017). In addition, Shedrack (2019 assert that education has a crucial role in the maintenance, transfer, and enrichment of cultures among different communities. Hence, it is evident that education plays a crucial role in both human and capital growth. However, the current situation is not conducive to educational activities due to the ongoing abductions of kids. This has resulted in a suspension of academic operations, as pupils are now apprehensive about attending their respective institutions. Therefore, the researcher sought to examine the effect of students abduction on educational activities in Zamfara State.

1.2 Statement of the problem

The academic endeavours inside Nigerian educational institutions are now facing significant challenges across all dimensions, including issues related to both accessibility and the quality of education provided. Nevertheless, it might be said that the recent series of widespread abductions of pupils is the most severe existential peril and dilemma confronting the education system. According to Adeniran and Castradori (2021), during a span of less than three months from December 2020 to March 2021, a total of over 600 children were abducted while attending school, in three distinct occurrences. Of more concern is the observation that the increased state of insecurity is mostly prevalent in the northern region of Nigeria, an area that already has educational disadvantages. Out of the approximate 10.5 million children that are not enrolled in schools throughout the nation, it is seen that 69 percent of them are from the Northern region. This particular region is characterised by cultural practises and economic disadvantages that hinder children's active engagement in educational institutions. The area is significantly impacted by the insurgent actions of Boko Haram, which have severe consequences for both the economic and education institutions. The current surge in school abductions has a significant likelihood of eroding community and family confidence in the education system. There is a potential for a substantial decrease in literacy rates, which might exacerbate the issue of limited access to high-quality and fair education. Moreover, in light of the protracted suspension of schools due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Nigerian education system is now through a process of recovery. However, the introduction of security concerns as an additional problem has the potential to result in an irreversible collapse of the system (Adeniran & Castradori, 2021). Hence, the study examines  the effect of students abduction on educational activities in Zamfara State.

1.3       Objectives of the study

The general objective of the study is to examine the effect of students abduction on educational activities in Zamfara. The specific objectives is as follows:

1.        Identify factors responsible for the abduction of students in Zamfara State.

2.        Find out the effect of students abduction on educational activities in Zamfara State.

3.        Recommend strategies that can help curb the activities of abductors in Zamfara State.

1.4 Research questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study:

1.        What are the factors responsible for the abduction of students in Zamfara State?

2.        What are the effect of students abduction on educational activities in Zamfara State?

3.        What are the strategies that can help curb the activities of abductors in Zamfara State?

1.5       Resrearch Hypotheses

H0: Students abduction does not have any effects on educational activities in Zamfara.

Ha: Students abduction have any effects on educational activities in Zamfara.

1.6       Significance of the study

The findings f the study is significant to ministry of education, stake holders in the educational sector, including policy makers as it will be revealed by the study the degree at which insecurity has affected the educational activities in the northern region, especially in Zamfara State. The findings of the study will propose recommendations toward curbing the spate of insecurity in the Northern part of Nigeria.

The findings of the study will be significant to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.

1.7       Scope of the study

The scope of this study is boarded on the effect of students abduction on educational activities in Zamfara. Theoretically, this study will discuss factors responsible for the abduction of students in Zamfara State, find out the effect of students abduction on educational activities in Zamfara State and recommend strategies that can help curb the activities of abductors in Zamfara State.

Geographically, the study will be delimited secondary school students in Zurmi local government, Zamfara state, Nigeria.

1.8       Limitations of the study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents.

In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed.

More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other schools, local governments, states, and other countries in the world.

1.9       Definition of terms

Abduction : the action of taking someone away by force or deception.

Educational activities: the activities of educating or instructing; activities that impart knowledge or skill



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