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CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED BY PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS ON IMPROVISATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS DURING TEACHING PRACTICE EXERCISE

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CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED BY PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS ON IMPROVISATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS DURING TEACHING PRACTICE EXERCISE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Instructional materials, in their essence, serve as indispensable instruments that facilitate the process of teaching and learning with utmost effectiveness and efficiency. Fadeiye (2019) posited that instructional materials encompass visual and audiovisual aids, whether tangible or intangible, that educators employ to facilitate the process of imparting knowledge and fostering educational endeavours within the realm of Social Studies. In the scholarly work by Kochhar (2022), the concept of instructional materials is expounded upon and deemed to be of utmost importance in the realm of learning and teaching. The importance of teachers seeking out additional instructional materials to complement the content provided in textbooks cannot be overstated. By doing so, teachers are able to expand upon key concepts and ignite a sense of curiosity and engagement within their students. In their scholarly work, Oluwagbohunmi and Abdu-Raheem (2018) expounded upon the concept of instructional materials, defining them as the tools employed by educators to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge and enhance the comprehension of academic content among students within the context of the teaching and learning experience. 

According to the scholarly works of Iyamu (2020) and Kolawole (2018), it has been affirmed that the provision of superior learning materials and facilities, including but not limited to well-suited classrooms, appropriate furniture, and various teaching aids such as periodicals, slides, film strips, computers, office accommodations, log books, chairs, tables, libraries, and conducive working spaces, play a vital role in ensuring the delivery of high-quality education. According to Aguba (2023), it has been posited that the presence or absence of crucial educational resources has a direct influence on the capacity of teachers to both fulfil and fail in their duties. Furthermore, it is argued that this factor also has an indirect effect on the motivation and satisfaction levels of teachers. 

As per the scholarly work of Olumorin, Yusuf, Ajidagba, and Jekayinfa (2020), it has been established that instructional materials play a pivotal role in facilitating the teaching process for educators, enabling them to impart knowledge with greater ease. Furthermore, these materials also contribute significantly to the learning experience of students, as they alleviate the burden of stress associated with the acquisition of knowledge. The authors observed that instructional materials possess the capacity to engage the human sensory faculties of visual perception, tactile sensation, olfactory perception, haptic perception, and auditory perception. Ajayi and Ayodele (2021) have expressed the viewpoint that the presence of sufficient instructional materials within educational institutions contributes to the optimisation of instructional delivery and supervision. Akomolafe (2021) emphasised the significant advancements that have been achieved in the field of education as a result of the utilisation of instructional materials. Omirin (2020) and Eniayewu (2018) concur that the utilisation of instructional materials during the process of teaching and learning is of utmost significance. This practice not only facilitates the acquisition of knowledge by students, but also serves to enhance academic standards. 

Furthermore, it has been posited by Oluwagbohunmi (2018) that students derive pleasure from the process of acquiring knowledge when instructional materials are employed. To optimise their learning experience, it is imperative to expose them to real-life scenarios. In order for teaching and learning to be effective, Abdu-Raheem (2021) proposed that it is necessary for Social Studies teachers to engage in the improvisation of local and simple instructional materials. This practice is essential for enhancing the academic standard. The speaker emphasised the significance of utilising locally sourced materials to create teaching aids, as this will greatly contribute to the improvement of students' academic achievements. 

Jekayinfa (2022) has brought attention to the fact that educators possess the ability to make use of various resources in order to supplement their teaching materials. For instance, they can opt to employ clay as a substitute for moulding, utilise copy games to enhance productivity, and even construct globes using locally sourced materials such as calabashes, which can be combined with paper mache. Furthermore, paper mache can also be utilised to create topographical maps. The significance of improvisation in instructional materials was also emphasised by the speaker. This practice not only enhances the concreteness and authenticity of the learning experience, but also enables the substitution of one element for another. Moreover, it facilitates active student participation in the production of educational resources, while also proving to be a cost-effective approach that prioritises the teacher-student dynamic. In his study, Kamarise (2018) observed that improvisation serves as a viable method for offering a nearly identical alternative to instructional materials. This becomes necessary when the genuine object cannot be accessed in the classroom due to factors such as limited availability, size constraints, high cost, or potential risks associated with handling. 

In the scholarly work by Akinleye (2020), it is observed that the attainment of effective teaching and learning necessitates the utilisation of instructional materials by the teacher, along with the incorporation of practical activities. This approach serves to enhance the learning experience by rendering it more vivid, logical, realistic, and pragmatic. In the scholarly work by Kochhar (2022), it is elucidated that the utilisation of supplementary materials, such as workbooks, test items, charts, and films, is imperative in conjunction with textbooks. This comprehensive approach ensures that students are equipped with the necessary tools to effectively acquire the anticipated learning outcomes, encompassing knowledge, understanding, learning skills, behavioural competencies, and attitudes. Oso (2021) concurred with the notion that the optimal approach for educators to effectively utilise their manipulative abilities is through improvisation, thereby attaining their instructional goals to a satisfactory degree. 

Given the perspectives of esteemed scholars, it can be argued that the utilisation of locally crafted and rudimentary teaching aids by educators, including those who are still in training, has the potential to greatly enhance the uniformity of instructional practices, bolster students' academic achievements, and ultimately elevate the overall quality of education. Notwithstanding the merits associated with the improvisation of instructional materials for the facilitation of Social Studies education, it poses a formidable obstacle to educators across all tiers of the Nigerian educational system. This predicament arises from the prevalent practice of instructors employing inconsequential or nonexistent materials in their pedagogical endeavours. 

In their seminal study, Wan Ng and Alan (2020) expounded upon the imperative of investigating the evolving beliefs of pre-service teachers in order to foster their growth as self-regulated and critically reflective professionals, despite the diverse backgrounds and prior experiences of students enrolling in teacher education programmes at universities and colleges. In accordance with Teo's (2020) findings, it is indeed imperative to equip pre-service teachers with the necessary tools and experiences that they will frequently employ in their forthcoming positions as educators. This is due to the fact that the act of teaching has evolved into a multifaceted and intricate endeavour. 

The improvisation of instructional materials in Nigerian schools is of utmost importance due to the prevailing financial constraints that plague the education sector and the country as a whole. These constraints render it impracticable for the government to adequately furnish schools with the necessary instructional materials. Resourceful and skillful educators, including pre-service teachers, are strongly encouraged to employ their ingenuity in creating essential instructional materials. This practice serves to enhance the overall quality of teaching and learning, while simultaneously elevating academic standards within Nigerian schools.

1.2 Statement of the Problem 

It has been duly noted that a significant number of educators, both established teachers and those in training, within esteemed institutions of higher education, namely Colleges of Education and Universities, have been engaging in pedagogical practices that lean towards the abstract. Furthermore, it has been duly observed that the lack of instructional materials in educational institutions can be attributed to the unfavourable financial circumstances that these schools find themselves in. Furthermore, it has been ascertained that the dearth of instructional materials within educational institutions is exerting a detrimental impact on the academic achievements of pre-service educators (Oso,2021). This paper, therefore, aims to investigate the challenges encountered by pre-service teachers on improvisation of instructional materials during teaching practice exercise.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to evaluate the challenges encountered by pre-service teachers on improvisation of instructional materials during teaching practice exercise. Other objectives of this study are:

1.Ascertain the level of pre-service teachers involvement towards the improvisation of instructional materials during teaching practice exercise in secondary schools.

2.Ascertain pre-service teachers attitude towards improvisation of instructional materials during teaching practice exercise in secondary schools.

3.Assess the problems faced by pre-service teachers towards the improvisation of Instructional Materials for teaching and learning in secondary schools.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

What is the level of pre-service teachers involvement towards the improvisation of instructional materials during teaching practice exercise in secondary schools?

What is pre-service teachers attitude towards improvisation of instructional materials during teaching practice exercise in secondary schools?

What are the problems faced by pre-service teachers towards the improvisation of Instructional Materials for teaching and learning in secondary schools?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

Ho: There are no problems faced by pre-service teachers towards the improvisation of instructional materials during teaching practice exercise. 

Ha: There are problems faced by pre-service teachers towards the improvisation of instructional materials during teaching practice exercise. 

1.6 Significance Of The Study

The need to undertake this study is to determine pre-service teachers problem of improvisation of instructional materials during teaching practice exercise. The suggestions that will be effected from the findings may be of great benefit to the pre service teachers if properly utilized.

The findings from this study shall provide relevant information as regards to the skills of producing and utilizing locally made instructional materials to the classroom teachers for effective teaching-learning process. The research is also a documentary evidence of what is available and the deficiencies, at present in terms of teaching materials in most of post-primary schools.

Findings from this study will be very significant to government as it will help them to identify where, when and how to assist and motivate teachers in the improvisation of instructional materials in teaching. Also, the curriculum planners will benefit from this study as the study will enable them to make provisions for teachers in the production of instructional materials for teaching and learning.

The research work will enable students to appreciate the importance of locally made instructional materials in learning biology. It will also motivate the students to increase their academic performance.

1.7 Scope Of The Study

This study focuses on the examine the challenges encountered by pre-service teachers on improvisation of instructional materials during teaching practice exercise. Hence, the study will be delimited to some selected secondary schools in Ibadan,Oyo State.

1.8 Limitations Of The Study

The researcher encountered minor obstacles when conducting the study, as with any human endeavor. The significant constraint was the scarcity of literature on the subject due to the nature of the discourse, so the researcher incurred more financial expenses and spent more time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information and in the data collection process, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Furthermore, the researcher did this investigation alongside other academic activities. Furthermore, the sample size was limited because only a few respondents were chosen to answer the research instrument, therefore the results cannot be generalized to other secondary schools outside the state. Despite the constraints encountered during the research, all elements were minimized in order to provide the best results and make the research effective.

1.9 Definition Of Terms

Instructional Materials: Refers to devices or materials which present a body of information and largely self-supporting in the teaching/learning process.

Improvisation: Entails the production of equipment using available local and cheaper resources and the use of such equipment for effective teaching.


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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