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AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCESS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN AHOADA EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, RIVERS STATE

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AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCESS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN AHOADA EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, RIVERS STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Education exists in every society, both formally and traditionally. In Nigeria, education is regarded as the cornerstone of development, forming the basis for literacy, skill acquisition, technological progress, and the ability to utilize human and material resources for societal goals (Adegboyega, 2018). Nevertheless, an educational system at any level cannot function effectively without proper school facilities, which are crucial for the teaching and learning processes.  The necessity for quality school facilities in school environment cannot be overstated. 

The school environment includes factors like location, building quality, structure, class size, student capacity, staff, teaching materials, and aids. Comfort within the school environment greatly affects teaching effectiveness. Neglecting important aspects of the school environment can hinder learning, as effective teaching cannot occur in an unsuitable environment (Farombi, 2020). Teaching and learning are interconnected; teachers facilitate learning, but students can also learn independently if the environment is conducive. However, issues like inadequate libraries and overcrowded classrooms in public schools particularly in Ahoada East Local Government Area, cause significant discomfort and impede both teaching and learning.

Conceptually, the term teaching is a process that facilitates learning, and school administrators play a crucial role as catalysts in this process. Likewise, Akpa, Udoh, & Fagbamiye (2015) reported that administrators are responsible for ensuring that every child has access to quality education in well-equipped school facilities. Effective management of these facilities directly and indirectly influences the teaching and learning process (Akem, 2018). On the other hand, Farrant (2021) found that students in classrooms with large windows, natural lighting, and well-designed skylights performed 25% better than their peers in less conducive environments. Poor environmental conditions, such as inadequate heating, ventilation, and lighting, also negatively affect both students and staff (Farombi, 2020). School facilities significantly influence teaching and shape students' learning processes, both in and out of school.

Today, many school facilities intended to enhance secondary education are outdated, posing serious challenges to modern educational needs. Some facilities are dilapidated and fail to motivate teaching and learning process for both teachers and students. The physical condition of school facilities affects public perception and student learning outcomes. Dilapidated buildings, poor maintenance, and inadequate facilities can deter involvement and support for schools. A well-maintained educational environment fosters good interpersonal relationships and enhances students' academic achievements. Studies by Ajayi and Ashaolu (2015), Ayodele (2017), and Ajayi (2019) support the notion that quality school resources contribute to better student performance. Therefore, this study seeks to conduct a survey in order to investigate on environmental factors influencing the teaching and learning process in secondary schools in Ahoada East Local Government Area, Rivers state.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Since school environment plays a crucial role in teaching and learning process. Nigerian government have allocated significant portions of their annual budgets to the provision and maintenance of school facilities to improve the education sector, but these funds are often mismanaged or not managed at all, leaving many secondary schools below standard (Ayodele, 2017). Additionally, some studies have identified  problems that could affect teaching and learning process in secondary schools specifically, public schools in Nigeria. One of this problems is poor school building quality in regards or respect to the physical school environment. This includes the classrooms, laboratories, workshops, reading room or teachers offices etc.  While the safety and comfort of both teachers and students depends solely on the quality of the building which will determine the extent to which teaching activities can be affected. Most schools lack library services or well-equipped ones. Similarly, teachers and students are unable to expand their teaching and learning skills respectively (Ibiam, 2017).

According to Ikegbunam (2016) public secondary schools have poor locations due to poor school planning. Most of these schools are not situated in conducive surroundings, some are by the market side, mechanic workshops, busy road side, hospitals etc. The school environment is not safe in this immediate surroundings for effective interaction between teachers and students. Ayo (2015), states that public secondary schools funding are used for day to day running. Therefore it is of paramount importance to note that every public secondary school principal needs to plan the school budget either timely or annually to achieve optimal school performance, which cannot be totally or partially possible if this funds are not given at all or at the right time. Beyond that, fund allocated and disbursed to manage public schools is not sufficient to either provide or maintain available facilities (Ibiam, 2014). Moreover, corrupt tendencies of some government officials, school proprietors and school managers also constitute a major problem; funds are diverted, misappropriated or stolen. It is in the light of this, the study seeks to investigate on environmental factors influencing the teaching and learning process in secondary schools in Ahoada East Local Government Area, Rivers state.

1.3  OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The study is to investigate on environmental factors influencing the teaching and learning process in secondary schools in Ahoada East Local Government Area, Rivers state. Specifically the study intends to:

Evaluate the influence of school location on teaching and learning process in secondary schools in Ahoada East.

Evaluate the influence of insecurity in school environment on teaching and learning process in secondary schools in Ahoada East.

Evaluate the influence of inadequate educational infrastructural facilities on teaching and learning process in secondary schools in Ahoada East.

Evaluate the influence of students overpopulation on teaching and learning process in secondary schools in Ahoada East.

1.4  RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions are based on the problems raised in the statement of the problem to guide the study.

Does the location of the school influence the teaching and learning process in secondary schools in Ahoada East?

Does insecurity in the school environment affect the teaching and learning process in secondary schools in Ahoada East?

What is the impact of inadequate educational infrastructural facilities on the teaching and learning process in secondary schools in Ahoada East?

How does student overpopulation influence the teaching and learning process in secondary schools in Ahoada East?

1.5  RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

HO:   Environmental factors do not significantly influence the teaching and learning process in secondary schools in Ahoada East Local Government Area, Rivers State.

HO: Environmental factors significantly influence the teaching and learning process in secondary schools in Ahoada East Local Government Area, Rivers State.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The result of the findings of this research work will be immense benefits to the government, principles or school administrators, teachers, parents as well as student researchers, in playing a sensitive role aimed at improving the standard of education through providing conducive learning environment. Government or policy makers will be able to formulate effective planning and implement policies and programs for improved teaching activities, allocation of funds, timely release period and the legal framework guiding its activities. Additionally, parents will be able to determine the choice of the type of school for their children, because their children will enjoy good school learning environment that will eventually lead to quality school products with the help of the study findings. Furthermore, subsequent researchers will use it as a literature review. This means that other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regard to environmental factors influencing the teaching and learning process in secondary schools in Ahoada East Local Government Area, Rivers state.

1.7   SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of this study is boarded on environmental factors influencing the teaching and learning process in secondary schools in Ahoada East Local Government Area, Rivers state. Empirically, the study will evaluate the influence of school location on teaching and learning process in secondary schools, the influence of insecurity in school environment on teaching and learning process in secondary schools,  the influence of inadequate educational infrastructural facilities on teaching and learning process in secondary schools and the influence of students overpopulation on teaching and learning process in secondary schools

Geographically, the study will be delimited to teachers and students in some selected secondary schools in Ahoada East Local Government Area, Rivers state.

1.8  LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed. More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other schools, local governments, states, and other countries in the world.

1.9  DEFINITION OF TERMS

Environment – this can be defined as a system within which living organisms interact with the physical element. Whatever we come in contact with either it be in the school area, play ground or around the home.

School Environment – it is a learning place where the learner learns and interacts with learning facilities in order to be socialized and face the challenges in the society. It involves both material and non-material resources in the school, it includes the teachers, peers, cohesiveness, the subjects, method of teaching.

Academic performance: Students scores obtained from both internal and external examination after classroom interactive teaching and learning.

Classroom Environment: This is specified place either in a confined or opened arena where teaching and learning activities is carried out.

Education: the formal process of impacting and acquiring knowledge in an organized setting. 

Physical facilities: The necessary facilities for a successful programme implementation in education such as, classroom blocks, laboratory, library, chairs and desks but to mention a few.


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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