This chapter discusses the background to the study, statement of the problem, objectives of study, significance of study, scope of study, limitations of study and operational definition of terms.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The control and maintenance of inventory is a vital problem experienced almost by all sectors of the economy. This topic is very important, as all organizations deal with inventories on a daily basis. Neglecting the importance of inventory in any organization can lead to the closing down of the company, especially if the factors of production are not well managed in order to meet customers' needs or desires, the company will grind to a halt. The inventory problem consists of having sufficient items available when desired by the customers. The stock of items must be reasonable, meaning that it should not be too much or too little. The company should be in a position to meet customers' demand in terms of quantity and quality
Drug inventory management is a key management function in hospital administration particularly in Federal Medical Centers Bida. The purchasing, storing, distributing and controlling of drugs are activities in drug management process which have the ultimate aim of improving patient care in the various medical centers. Hospital pharmacies throughout Nigeria may be experiencing inventory problems that have resulted in wastage and shortage of drugs due to the use of inefficient (existing manual process) The obvious outcome of this problem is a retrogressive effect on patient care due to delayed procedures and drug substitutions (Fox and Tyler 2003).
While some drug shortages are uncontrollable (e.g. due to a natural disaster), others can be controlled. Inventory, which is a result of the purchasing process, must be well controlled. However, based on daily activities performed in the hospital pharmacy, the main concerns regarding managing inventory occur during purchasing process. It is problematic and time consuming to decide when and how much to order. Improper inventory management can also result from the procurement expertise of those managing the inventory (Alverson, 2003). Although pharmacists in hospitals have expertise in the efficacy and treatment protocols of drugs that are administered to patients, they are also tasked with managing, ordering, and producing the drugs that are ultimately dispensed to patients.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Due to problem been faced with the existing file method of inventory management. There are two foremost statements of the problem which is to be solved by the proposed Centralized Inventory system:
a. No automated process to manipulate data; currently Pharmacy Department of FMC, Bida does not have an automated inventory system. All process of drug management is done at file-base record level thus to manipulate drug such as add, delete. or edit is not available.
b. Pharmacist consistent error on multiple or under ordering of drugs.
c. No accurate mechanism to remind for critical quantity of each drug.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Aim: This project is aimed to develop Web-based Drug Inventory Management System to automate and support the current process of drug inventory and distribution between FMC, Bida and its Units
The objectives of this project are:
a. To explore issues associated with the current file based record of drug inventory and distribution process in FMC, Bida.
b. To develop a Web-based Drug Inventory Management System prototype for FMC, Bida
1.4 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
The designing and implementing of Web-based Drug Inventory Management System is in view to enhance and eliminate all obvious lapses in the pharmacy department, such as; missing drugs, files, unaccounted monies etc. Because an automated process of drug inventory will record and store /backup information in its main and back-up memories, which can be retrieved at a press of button
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
There are five units in the pharmacy department at the Federal Medical Center, Bida and two out-units. One situated at Gawu-Babangida and the other at Zungeru all in Niger state. These out units are autonomous, while the Pharmacy units in Bida center are
· National insurance health services (NHIS) Unit
· Accident & Emergency (A&E) Unit
· Obstetrics & Gynaecology (O&G) Unit
· Paediatrics Unit
· General Out-patient Clinic (GOPC) Unit
and a central store, where all drugs is stored to serve these five units.This project therefore seeks to unravel a Web-base Drug Inventory System at Federal Medical Center, Bida to improve patient care.
1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is limited to the Federal Medical Center Pharmacy Department Bida and its five (5) pharmaceutical units within Bida; those outside Bida i.e. Zungeru and Gawu-babangida are not considered for this study .I was restricted to all sensitive information at FMC, Bida at the time of this research work
1.7 TERMINOLOGY USED IN THE INVENTORY
STOCKS: All items or materials stored within the organization.
INVENTORY: List of items contained in the stock. Refer to the list of stocks and the stock itself.
ITEM: One of the products kept in stock, is an input in inventory.
UNIT: Standard size or quantity of the items in the catalogue.
CONTROL INVENTORY: Activities or procedures used to ensure that the correct amount should be kept in stock.